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Table 5 Levels of Evidence Adapted from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons and Johns Hopkins nursing evidence-based practice: Models and Guidelines (Burns et al. 2011; Dang and Dearholt 2017)

From: Review of proximal splenic artery embolization in blunt abdominal trauma

Level Description
I High quality prospective RCTs, cohort studies with adequate power or systematic review of these studies
II Lower quality prospective cohort, retrospective cohort study, RCT with untreated controls, or a systematic review/meta-analysis of these studies
III Case-control study or systematic review/meta-analysis of these studies
IV Case Series, consensus statements, society guidelines, practice guidelines
V Expert Opinion: case report, clinical example, narrative reviews