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Table 1 Patient demographics, AVM characteristics, technical approach, complications and clinical/imaging follow up

From: Endovascular balloon-assisted liquid embolisation of soft tissue vascular malformations: technical feasibility and safety

Patient Type/Location Symptoms Approach Fluoroscopy time (mins) Embolic agent Complications Follow up time (months) Symptomatic improvement (Y/N) Clinical follow up outcome Imaging follow up
1 Low-flow AVM, calf Lower limb thrombus, pain Arterial and percutaneous 23.7 Liquid sodium tetradecyl sulphate, 3% Nil 3 months Y Improved exercise
tolerance, discoloration
and pain
No residual arterial component on MRI
2 High flow AVM, ankle Pain Arterial and venous 39.3 PHIL Nil 6 months Y No ongoing pain or swelling, reduction in size, decreased discoloration Significant reduction in size (only few small arterial feeders persisting) on MRI
3 High flow AVM,
Pain and swelling Arterial and venous 70.7 Onyx and PHIL Nil 2 years Y AVM recurrence requiring repeat endovascular treatment Planned for 6 months postprocedure
4 Low flow venous malformation,
Recurrent oral bleeding, aesthetically displeasing for patient Arterial and percutaneous 15.7 Liquid sodium tetradecyl sulphate, 3% Oropharyngeal swelling, tracheostomy 1 year Y Some residual symptoms including oral fullness and occasional ulceration and bleeding Significant reduction in size of lingual compartment on MRI with residual arterial flow and patency in compartment at the floor of the mouth (smaller compared to preprocedural imaging)
5 High flow AVM, hand Right arm pain, venous distension Arterial and venous 114.7 Onyx and PHIL Postprocedural haematoma, arterial dissection 9 months Y Improvement in pain,
normal hand function
Some persistent arterialised flow extending from embolic material suggesting some AVM residium on postprocedural CT angiogram
6 High flow AVM, uterine Large PV bleeding Arterial and venous 273 Onyx Nil 3 months Y No further irregular PV
7 High flow AVM, calf Swelling and pain Arterial Not available Polidocanol 3% liquid embolic Nil 1 month Y Improvement in pain/
discomfort. Some ongoing
Complete obliteration of AVM