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Table 1 Review of the literature

From: Management and endovascular therapy of ureteroarterial fistulas: experience from a single center and review of the literature

Reference Cases UAF treatment Revisional procedure Results Complications UAF recurrence Follow-up and outcomes
(Subiela et al., 2018) 94 89 (94.7%) SG, 5 (5.3%) embolization, 24 (22.6%) IIA embolization + SG nephrectomy (3 cases), SG placement (3) In all cases, after the procedure, hematuria disappeared overall complication rate (17%), SG thrombosis (3 [3.2%] cases), retroperitoneal abscess (2 [2.1%] cases), urosepsis (2 [2.1%] cases), native iliac external artery thrombosis (1 [1%] case), and limb claudication (1 [1%] case) 7 cases (7.5%) overall survival: 42 months (95% CI: 32.4–51.6), survival (UAF related death): 2 months (95% CI: 0–15)
(Devulapalli et al., 2021) 1 IIA vascular plug and coil embolization no technical success no no free of gross hematuria at 2.5 years
(Kaneko et al., 2020) 1 IIA coil embolization + SG no technical success no no died seven months after treatment unrelated to UAF
(Augustin et al., 2020) 5 2/5 (40%) coil embolization, 3/5 (60%) vascular plug embolization, 2/5 (40%) SG coil and microspheres (Embozene) embolization and additional open-surgical occlusion (1 case); SG extension (1) 100% technical success, 60% clinical success fever after a urological exchange of an ureter stent (1 case) 2/5 (40%), 8 days and 4 days after initial therapy Median follow-up: 39 (range: 1–48.7) months
(Yoshioka et al., 2020) 1 IIA vascular plug embolization + SG no technical success no no uneventful at 11 months
(Fernandopulle et al., 2020) 1 SG no technical success no no uneventful at 9 months
(Geevarghese and Gupta, 2020) 1 SG no technical success no no uneventful at 6 months
(Perrenoud et al., 2020) 1 SG two times SG extension technical success febrile, suspected SG infection within a week and again 4 days after repeated intervention continued to have intermittent hematuria and ultimately required surgical revision
(Berastegi-Santamaria et al., 2020) 1 SG no technical success no no uneventful at 1 month
(Di Grazia et al., 2020) 1 SG no technical success no no uneventful at 1 month
(Massmann et al., 2020) 5 SG in a double-barrel technique, 1/5 (20%) femoral-femoral-crossover bypass 100% technical success 1/5 (20%) SG thrombosis at 6 weeks no median follow-up: 18 (9–37) months
(Horie et al., 2019) 1 IIA coil embolization + SG no technical success no no uneventful 1 year
(Titomihelakis et al., 2019) 5 3/5 (60%) SG, 2/5 (40%) IIA coil embolization + SG 1/5 (20%) SG, 1/5 (20%) surgery 4/5 (80%) successful repairs 2/5 (40%) SG infections, 1/5 (20%) SG occlusion 2/5 (40%) 1 lost to follow-up, 1 died at one year unrelated to UAF treatment, 1 uneventful at 10 months, 1 without hematuria at 7-month follow-up, 1 died 5 months due to rebleeding
(Leone et al., 2019) 4 SG no technical success no no Mean follow-up: 49 (25–66) months, uneventful in all patients
(Heers et al., 2018) 22a 17/22 (77.3%) SG, 3/22 (13.6%) coil embolization + SG, 2/22 (9.1%) coil embolization, SG (2 cases), coil embolization (later surgical ligation and cross-over bypass; 1 case) 24/26 (92.3%) survived the acute situation 2 SG occlusions, 1 SG infection, 1 ischemic pain in ipsilateral hip, 1 ipsilateral calf ischemia 3/26 2/26 (7.7%) did not survive the acute situation, one was lost to follow-up, 12 were alive at a median follow-up of 8 months (1–80), nine died during follow-up (one died due to ongoing UAF)
(Noh et al., 2020) 8 6/8 (75%) SG, 1/8 (12.5%) SG + IIA embolization, 1/8 (12.5%)b 3/8 (37.5%; surgery [2], SG [1]) 100% technical success, no UAF-related death 1/8 (12.5%) SG infection 3/8 (37.5%) at a mean of 6.3 months median follow-up: 987 days, two died due to their underlying disease (45 and 288 days)
  1. IIA internal iliac arery, SG stent graft, UAF ureteroarterial fistula
  2. a 22 endovascular cases of 26 UAF including 4 surgical cases, b ureteral occlusion stent, embolization with coils and cyanoacrylates